Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest challenges facing public health, and without effective action, experts predict that by 2050 the death toll will reach 10 million worldwide, replacing cancer as the primary cause of death. For this reason, World Awareness Week in Antibiotic Use is celebrated by the World Health Organization (WHO) between 18-24 November.
historically, Research on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animals has focused primarily on food-producing species.. However, recently companion animals such as dogs and cats are increasingly recognized as reservoirs and routes of transmission of ADR. Experts warn that the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in companion animals poses a potential threat not only to them, but also to veterinary staff, other animals and their owners.
In this regard, recently Various studies and projects involving pets have emerged. as actors in the development and spread of antibiotic resistance.
For example, a study Recent studies have focused on learning about the role of feral cats in the spread of antimicrobial resistance on the Italian island of Sicily. Of the stool samples obtained, 43% had bacteria resistant to the eight antibiotics tested..
Other to find A recent study has revealed the presence of a drug-resistant ‘superbug’ in a dog in the UK. The discovery occurred in a spring spaniel after he was isolated. Escherichia coli a creator was discovered that isolate harbored a gene resistant to carbapenemsA class of antibiotics used to treat infections along with resistance genes to other commonly used antibiotics.
one in spain studyrun by the universities of La Rioja and Zaragoza, investigated the potential for antibiotic resistance. Staphylococcus pseudointermedius (SP) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA), as well as the capacity for transmission and its relevance to opportunistic environmental infections. A total of 28 cultures were defined as SP and 5 as SA. Same way, Nine methicillin-resistant isolates were identifiedeight responded Staphylococcus pseudointermediusand a crop Staphylococcus aureus. On the other hand, 55% of the total isolates were classified as multiple antibiotic resistance (MDR). In antibiotic resistance studies, SP cultures showed resistance to penicillin, oxacillin, erythromycin/clindamycin, aminoglycosides, and tetracycline, among others.
PET FEEDING AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
In addition to these findings, the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in different pet foods has also been studied, as foods can harbor pathogens that can cause disease in both animals and humans.
In this sense, a study presented at the fair European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) has revealed that raw dog food is an important source of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
With some of the multidrug-resistant bacteria in the same raw dog food as found in hospital patients In some European countries, researchers explained that the tendency to feed dogs raw food could trigger the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Another example of this is study who researched prevalence AND. coli resistant to antibiotics and enteric pathogen Salmonella spp.. in the feces of dogs fed raw or non-raw diets.
Salmonella isolates were detected in 4% of dogs fed with raw food. Also detected coli RAM (resistant to at least one antimicrobial tested) 40% Y coli MDR (resistance to three or more classes of antibiotics) in 16% of dogs.
USE OF ANTIBIOTICS IN PETS
Of all the factors that promote ADR in pets, the use of antibiotics is considered one of the most important.
The new report from the Health and Environment Observatory analyzes the role of companion animals as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance.
In the case of these species, they note, the risk of antibiotic use lies in the type of antibiotic consumed, rather than the amount consumed, as is often the case with food-producing species. “Administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics and/or critical antibiotics for human use to pets is very common.”.
As they explain, one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for pets is amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, a broad-spectrum drug that is inexpensive and has few side effects. “The lack of confirmed positive culture tests (reporting the presence of a bacterium) and/or antimicrobial susceptibility tests (detecting the susceptibility of a bacterium to a drug) for this antibiotic is alarming to experts.”
Actually, a study The article on the use of antibiotics to treat urinary tract infections in pets suggested that applications of antimicrobial use to treat these infections may have an impact on the development of resistance to these antimicrobials, and “collect urine samples and perform bacterial cultures and susceptibility tests to antimicrobials before starting treatment to prevent the growth of multi-resistant bacteria.
For all these reasons, they warn. “The problem of ADR in pets is becoming increasingly important”. On the one hand, “because it means a risk to our pets, surgical interventions etc. And on the other hand, the close emotional relationship between humans and these animals, along with factors such as the type of antibiotic used on pets, very high risk of transmission of resistant bacteria that are dangerous to humans‘ they finish.
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